In simpler times, marketing communication was a linear process. Agencies and brands would cook up the message, test it with a focus group (or not), and start the assembly line of designing, writing, and illustrating the finished product—for broadcast or print production. Budget size mattered, but most of the time everyone knew what to expect.
Today, it’s a lot more complex, with a lot more variables and room for error. We still need well-designed, visually persuasive results, but the “ingredients” of a campaign (the product data) and the sheer number of output channels have made the process difficult, if not impossible to manage.